Relationships Between Academic Environment, Peer Relationship, Time Management And Psychological Well-Being

Hanina Halimatussaidiyah Hamsan


The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between academic environment, peer relationship, time management and psychological well-being among final year students in Universiti Putra Malaysia. The study also determines the level of each stressor, and the relationship between each independent variable (academic environment, peer relationship, time management) and dependent variable (psychological well-being) among final year students. Besides, this study also Respondents were 333 final year students who study at Faculty of Human Ecology (FEM), Faculty of Economic and Management (FEP), and Faculty of Engineering (FK). They were selected based on Proportionate stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. University Environment Scale (Gloria and Karpius, 1996), Index of Peer Relationship (Walter W. Hudson, 1992), The Time Management Behavior Scale (Macan, 1990), and were used to measure academic environment, peer relationship, time management respectively. Dependent variable which was psychological well-being was measured by using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21) which developed by Lovibond and Lovibond’s in year 1995. The results showed that majority of student had moderate level of perception to academic environment, setting goal and priorities, planning and scheduling, perceived control over time, preference for disorganization, overall time management behaviour and moderate level on depression. Besides, most of majority student have low peer relationship, extremely severe anxiety, and had normal stress. There is significant correlation between academic environment and depression (r=0.149**). Respectively, peer relationship was found have significant relationship with the psychological well-being subscales: depression (r=-0.468***), anxiety (r=0.374***), and stress (r=0.441***). Time management also have significant relationship between depression (r=-0.189***), anxiety (r=0.207***), and stress (r=0.197***). Academic environment have no significant relationship between anxiety (p>0.05) and stress (p>0.05). The study concluded that peer relationship (PR), and time management (TM) have significant predictor towards depression (ΒPR=0.458; ΒTM=0.233), anxiety (ΒPR =0.407; ΒTM =0.209), and stress (ΒPR=0.463; ΒTM=0.212) among final year students. Among the two predictors, peer relationship was found have most significant towards depression, anxiety, and stress of final year student, followed by time management. Study suggested that university should develop intention program, appropriate counselling service to student. Besides, student should learn good time management skills and habit in order to develop positive psychological well-being. Future study are encourage to include more possible sources of student psychological well-being, add more size of sample and apply different data collection tools for deeper investigation.


Peer Relationthips, Time Management, Psychological Well-Being

Full Text:



American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2012). Peer pressure. Facts for families, (104).

American College Health Association. (2012). American College Health Association- National College Health Assessment II: Undergraduate Reference Group Executive Summary Spring 2012. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association.

Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., &Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 176-181.

Blatchford, P., Bassett, P., Goldstein, H., & Martin, C. (2003). Are class size differences related to pupil’s educational progress and classroom processed? British Educational Research Journal, 29(5), 709-714.

Boey, K.W., Chan, K.B. &Ko, Y.C.(1998). Stress coping strategy and psychological well-being of Nurses: The Singapore Experience. Chinese Journal of Mental Health, 11, 1-20.

Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., &Kupersmidt, J. B. (1998). Peer relationships and self- esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development, 69, 1171– 1197.

BonhommeGA .(2007). The time management skills of at-risk African American college students: practices, experience, and context (Dissertation). Lafayette, LA, USA: Faculty of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, 483.

Glass, G.V., & Hopkins, K.D. (1984). Statistical methods in education and psychology: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Gloria, A. M., &Kurpius, S. E. R. (1996). The validation of the cultural congruity scale and the University Environment Scale with Chicano/a students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral ciences, 18, 533-549.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children’s learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890–898.

Greenberg, J. S. (1996). Comprehensive stress management (5th ed.). Chicago: Brown & Benchmark.

Gross, M.K. (2009). The effects of class size in elementary physical education: An examination of study activity level, class management and teacher attitude. Auburn University, 1-136.

Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67, 1–13.

Hudson, W. W. (1993). Index peer relationship. WALMYR Publishing Company.

Israel, G.D. (2009). Determining sample size.University of Florida.PEOD 6.1-5.

Janet Waters. (2012). Correlational Research Guidelines. British Columbia Canada: Capilano University.

Kelly, W. E. (2002). No time to worry: the relationship between worry, time structure, and time management. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1119-1126.

Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Daily companionship in late childhood and early adolescence: Changing developmental contexts. Child Development, 62, 284–300.

Laurie-Ann M. Hellsten (2012). What Do We Know About Time Management? A Review of the Literature and a Psychometric Critique of Instruments Assessing Time Management.Time Management. University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Lazarus, R. S., &Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer.

Lovibond, S. H., &Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Psychology Foundation.

Macan, T. H. (1994). Time management: Test of a process model, Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 381-391.

Macan, T. H., Shahani, C., Dipboye, R. L., & Phillips, A. P. (1990). College students time management: Correlations with academic performance and stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 760-768.

Macan, T. H. (1996). Time-management training: Effects on time behaviors, attitudes, and job performance. Journal of Psychology, 130, 229–236.

Marcus, M., M. Yasamy, T., Ommeren, M. V., Chisholm, D., &Saxena, S. (2012). Depression: A global crisis. World Health Organization, 1-30

Mazumdar, H., Gogoi, D., Buragohain, L., &Haloi, N. (2012).A comparative study on s tress and its contributing factors among the Graduate and Post-graduate students. Pelagia Research Library, 3 (1), 399-406

Misra, R., & McKean, M. (2000).College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction.American Journal of Health Studies, 16, 41-51.

Moos, R. (2003). Social contexts: transcending their power and their fragility. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31(1-2), 1-13.

Moos, R. (2003). The Social Climate Scales: A User’s Guide (3rd ed.). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden, Inc.

Nolen-Hoeksema,& Susan. (2001). Gender Differences in Depression.Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10 (5): 173–176.

Nykolas. (2012). How do students define 'character'?.CNN’s Schools of Thought. Retrieved 20 November 2012 from

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R.. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29, 611–621.

Paul Ramsden. (1979). Student learning and perceptions of the academic environment. Higher Education. 8(4), 411-427.

Pfeiffer, D. (2001). Academic and environmental stress among undergraduate and graduate college student: A literature review. University of Wisconsin-Stout, 1-29

Ryan, R.M. &Deci, E.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 141-166.

Ryan, R. M., &Grolnick, W. S. (1986). Origins and pawns in the classroom: Self-report and projective assessments of individual differences in children’s perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 550–558.

Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self- esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226–249.

Ryff, C.D. & Singer, B. (1998).The contours of positive human health. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 1-28. Santiago, C. (2008). Philippines: Country gender profile. Retrieved Oct. 18, 2012 from pdf

Ryzin, M.j.V, Gravely, A.A. &Roserth.c.j.(2009). Autonomy, belongingness, and engagement in school as contributors to adolescent psychological well-being. Journal Youth Adolescence, 8, 1-12

Sayner B. (2006). Stress level of university student. Istanbul Commerce University J Sci. 5, 23-34.

Seifert T.A. (2005). The Ryff Scales of psychological well-being.University of Lowa. Spring 2005.

Smith, C. (2008). The impact of obesity on the psychological well-being of the adolescent learner. University of South Africa, 1-115.

Soucie, D. (1986). Proper management of your time.CAHPER Journal, 52, (2), 36.

Stanton-Salazar, R &Spina, S 2005, Adolescent peer networks as a context for social and emotional Support, Youth and Society, 36(4), p. 379.

Stevenson, A & Harper S. (2006). Workplace stress and the student learning experience, Qual. Assur. Educ., 14(2): 167-178.

Student.(n.d.).Collins English Dictionary-Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. Retrieved 14 November, 2012, from website.

Williamson, J. & Robinson, M. (2006).Phychosocial interventions, or integrated programming for well-being, Intervention: The International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counseling in Areas of Armed Conflict, 4(1), 4- 25.

Wissing, M.P. & Van Eeden, C. (2003) Empirical clarification of the natural of psychological well-being.South African Journal of Psychology, 32(1): 32-44.

Wong, S. Y. &Lua, P. L. (2011). Anxiety and depressive symptoms among Communities in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A rural exploration. Malaysia: MJP Online Early, Retrieved November.11, 2012 from


World Health Organization.(2012). Depression.Retrieved November 20, 2012.from

Zalquett, C. (2005). Principals’ perceptions of elementary school counselors’ roles and functions. Professional School Counseling, 8(5), 451-457. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Editorial Office Board

Pascasarjana UIN Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau

Jl. KH. Ahmad Dahlan, No. 94 Kode Pos : 28129.


Contact Person :

Khairunnas Jamal

0823 6130 7171



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. View My Stats