Yusuf Rahman


This study aims to examine responses and receptions of Indonesian Muslim scholars on Western non-Muslims scholarship in the study of al-Qur’ān and tafsīr. Generally, the reception of their works can be divided into two responses: positive and negative. Yet, this study focuses on negative responses. The findings indicate that the responses are theological and polemical. The main sources of this study are works - printed and online - written by the opponents of Western scholarship in Indonesia. These works are analyzed chronologically to see the reasons behind their rejection. This study shows that Indonesian Muslim scholars responded negatively to Western scholarship on Qur’ānic studies because Western scholars have a hidden agenda in their works. This attitude, the article argues, is very polemical because it essentially generalizes the whole Western scholars have an ulterior motive for destroying Islam and al-Qur’ān. Basically, the research findings state that Western non-Muslim scholars are very diverse, and sometimes even contradictory. Thus, Muslim scholars are expected to participate in enriching Qur’ānic studies by supporting or refuting their findings, or providing new findings


Western Scholars; polemical and theological receptions; academic studies of al- Qur’ān

Full Text:



Abdullah, Taufik. “The Formation of a New Paradigm? A Sketch on Contemporary Islamic Discourse.” In Toward a New Paradigm: Recent Developments in Indonesian Islamic Thought, edited by Mark R. Woodward, 47–88. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona State University, 1996.

Abdul-Rauf, Muhammad. “Outsiders’ Interpretations of Islam: A Muslim’s Point of View.” In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, edited by Richard C. Martin, 179–188. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1985.

Al-Akoub, Eisa. “Izutsu’s Study of the Qur’an from an Arab Perspective.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 1 (2012): 107–130.

Albayrak, Ismail. “The Reception of Toshihiko Izutsu’s Qur’anic Studies in the Muslim World: With Special Reference to Turkish Qur’anic Scholarship.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 14, no. 1 (2012): 73–106.

Arif, Syamsuddin. Orientalis & Diabolisme Pemikiran. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2008.

Arkoun, Mohammed. “Contemporary Critical Practices and the Qur’an.” In Encyclopaedia of the Qur’an, edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 412–430. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Armas, Adnin. Metodologi Bibel Dalam Studi Al-Qur’an: Kajian Kritis. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2005.

———. “Orientalis Dan Studi Alquran.” Republika, April 14, 2005.

———. “Selamat Datang Profesor Azami!” Republika, March 30, 2005.

Azami, M.M. The History of Qur’anic Text. Sejarah Teks Al-Qur’an: Dari Wahyu Sampai Kompilasi. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2005.

———. The History of the Qur’ānic Text: From Revelation to Compilation. Leicester: UK Islamc Academy, 2003.

Azra, Azyumardi. “Globalization of Indonesian Muslim Discourse: Contemporary Religio-Intellectual Connections between Indonesia and the Middle East.” In Islam in the Era of Globalization: Muslim Attitudes towards Modernity and Identity, edited by Johan Meuleman, 31–50. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

———. “Menebar Benih Tradisi Baru Islam.” In IAIN & Modernisasi Islam Di Indonesia, edited by Fuad Jabali and Jamhari. Jakarta: Logos, 2002.

———. “The Making of Islamic Studies in Indonesia.” In Islam in Indonesia: Islamic Studies and Social Transformation, edited by Fuad Jabali and Jamhari, 96–102. Montreal; Jakarta: Indonesia-Canada Islamic Higher Education Project, 2002.

———. The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia: Networks of Malay-Indonesian and Middle Eastern ’Ulama in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Honolulu, Hawa’i: The University of Hawa’i Press, 2004.

Barton, Greg. “Indonesia’s Nurcholish Madjid and Abdurrahman Wahid as Intellectual ‘Ulama’: The Meeting of Islamic Traditionalism and Modernism in Neo-Modernist Thought.” Studia Islamika 4, no. 1 (1997): 29–81.

Burhani, A.N. “Transmission of Islamic Reform from the United States to Indonesia: Studying Fazlur Rahman’s Legacy through the Works of Ahmad Syafii Maarif.” Indonesia and the Malay World 41, no. 119 (2013): 29–47.

Feener, R. Michael. “Cross-Cultural Contexts of Modern Muslim Intellectualism.” Die Welt des Islams 47, no. 3–4 (2007): 264–282.

———. Muslim Legal Thought in Modern Indonesia. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Hassan, Muhammad Kamal. “Pengantar.” In Sejarah Teks Al-Qur’an Dari Wahyu Sampai Kompilasi, xxiii–xxiv. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2005.

Husaini, Adian. Hegemoni Kristen-Barat Dalam Studi Islam Di Perguruan Tinggi. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2006.

———. “Hermeneutika Dan Infiltrasi Kristen.” Last modified 2004. Accessed October 4, 2016.

———. “Kajian Orientalis Di UIN Jakarta.” Last modified 2006. Accessed January 1, 2016.

———. “Problem Teks Bible Dan Hermeneutika.” Islamia 1, no. 1 (2004).

———. Virus Liberalisme Di Perguruan Tinggi Islam. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2009.

———. Wajah Peradaban Barat: Dari Hegemoni Kristen Ke Dominasi Sekular-Liberal. Jakarta: Gema Insani Press, 2005.

Iqbal, Muzaffar, ed. Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān (IEQ). Sherwood Park, Seatlle: Center for Islamic Sciences, 2013.

———. “Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān: Raison D’etre & Project Summary.” Islam & Science 8, no. 1 (2010): 33–47.

———. “Introduction.” Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur’ān (2013): xi–xix.

———. “The Qur’an and Its Disbeliever.” Islam & Science 7, no. 2 (2009): 87–126.

———. “The Qur’ān, Orientalism, and the Encyclopaedia of the Qur’ān.” Journal of Qur’anic Research and Studies 3, no. 5 (2008): 5–45.

Karimi-Nia, Morteza. “Contemporary Qur’anic Studies in Iran and Its Relationship with Qur’anic Studies in the West.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 14, no. 1 (2012): 45–72.

Kersten, Carool. Cosmopolitan and Heretics: New Muslim Intellectuals and the Study of Islam. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

———. “Indonesia’s New Muslim Intellectuals.” Religion Compass 3, no. 6 (2009): 971–985.

Koç, Mehmet Akif. “The Influence of Western Qur’anic Scholarship in Turkey.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 14, no. 1 (2012): 9–44.

Koren, J., and Y.D. Nevo. “Methodological Approaches to Islamic Studies.” Der Islam 68 (1991): 87–107.

Leaman, Oliver. “The Corpus Coranicum Project and the Issue of Novelty.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 15, no. 2 (2013): 142–148.

Manzoor, S. Parvez. “Method against Truth: Orientalism and Qur’anic Studies.” Muslim World Book Review 7 (1987): 33–49.

———. “Method against Truth: Orientalism and Qur’anic Studies.” In The Qur’ān: Style and Content, edited by Andrew Rippin, 381–397. Aldershot; Burlington; Singapore; Sydney: Ashgate Variorum, 2001.

McAuliffe, Jane Dammen, ed. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʼān. Vol. I–V. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

———, ed. The Cambridge Companion to the Qur’ān. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Meuleman, Johan. “The Institute Agama Islam Negeri at the Crossroads: Some Notes on the Indonesian State Institute for Islamic Studies.” In Islam in the Era of Globalization: Muslim Attitudes towards Modernity and Identity, edited by Johan Meuleman, 281–297. London: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.

Munhanif, A. “Islam and the Struggle for Religious Pluralism in Indonesia: A Political Reading of the Religious Thought of Mukti Ali.” Studia Islamika 3, no. 1 (1996): 79–126.

Muzani, Saiful. “Mu’tazilah and the Modernization of the Indonesian Muslim Community: Intellectual Portrait of Harun Nasution.” Studia Islamika 1, no. 1 (1994): 91–131.

Rahman, Fazlur. “Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies: Review Essay.” In Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, edited by Richard C. Martin. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1985.

Rahman, Yusuf. “Survei Bibliografis Kajian Al-Qur’ān Dan Tafsīr Di Barat: Kajian Publikasi Buku Dalam Bahasa Inggris Sejak Tahun 2000an.” Journal of Qur’ān and Ḥadīth Studies 4, no. 1 (2015): 103–127.

———. “Tren Kajian Al-Qur’an Di Dunia Barat.” Studia Insania 1, no. 1 (2013): 1–8.

Reynolds, Gabriel Said. “Introduction: The Golden Age of Qur’ānic Studies?” In New Perspectives on the Qur’ān: The Qur’ān in Its Historical Context 2, edited by Gabriel Said Reynolds, 1–21. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Rippin, Andrew. “Review of Integrated Encyclopedia of the Qur’an, Vol. 1.” Journal of American Oriental Society 136, no. 1 (2016): 222–225.

———. “Review of Tafsir: Interpreting the Qur’ān Edited by Mustafa Shah.” Journal of Qur’anic Studies (2013): 162–165.

———. “The Reception of Euro-American Scholarship on the Qur’an and Tafsīr : An Overview (Editorial Preface).” Journal of Qur’anic Studies 14, no. 1 (April 2012): 1–8.

———. “Western Scholarship and the Qur’ān.” In Cambridge Companion to the Qur’ān, edited by Jane Dammen McAuliffe, 235–251. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Rohman, Izza. “New Approaches in Interpreting the Qur’an in Contemporary Indonesia.” Studia Islamika 14, no. 2 (2007): 203–264.

Sadeghi, Behnam, and Uwe Bergmann. “The Codex of a Companion of the Prophet and the Qur’ān of the Prophet.” Arabica 57 (2010): 343–436.

———. “The Codex of a Companion of the Prophet and the Qur’ān of the Prophet. Corrigenda.” Arabica 57 (2010): 516–516.

Sadeghi, Behnam, and Mohsen Goudarzi. “Ṣan‘ā’ 1 and the Origins of the Qur’ān.” Der Islam 87, no. 1–2 (2012): 1–129.

Saeed, Abdullah. The Qur’ān: An Introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2008.

———. “Towards Religious Tolerance through Reform in Islamic Education: The Case of the State Institute of Islamic Studies of Indonesia.” Indonesia and the Malay World 27, no. 79 (1999): 177–191.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

Shah, Mustafa, ed. Tafsir Interpreting the Qur’an Vol. 1 Part 1: History and Development. London dan New York: Routledge, 2013.

Sirry, Mun’im A. Kontroversi Islam Awal: Antara Mazhab Tradisionalis Dan Revisionis. Bandung: Mizan, 2015.

———. “Rekonstruksi Sejarah Teks Alquran.” Republika, April 1, 2005.

Varisco, Daniel Martin. Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2007.

Welch, A.T. “The Kur’ān.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Online (n.d.).

Zarkasyi, Hamid Fahmy. “Barat.” Islamia 1, no. 1 (2004): 119.

———. “Mendudukkan Orientalis.” In Misykat: Refleksi Tentang Islam, Westernisasi & Liberalisasi. Jakarta: INSISTS, 2012.

———. “Tradisi Orientalisme Dan Framework Studi Al-Qur’an.” Tsaqafah 7, no. 1 (2011): 1–30.

———. “Worldview Islam Dan Kapitalisme Barat.” Tsaqafah 9, no. 1 (2013): 15–38



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Ushuluddin Indexed By:

Alamat Redaksi:

Fakultas Ushuluddin UIN SUSKA Riau Jl. H.R. Soebrantas KM. 15,5 Panam – Pekanbaru

E-mail: /


Lisensi Creative Commons
Jurnal Ushuluddin is licensed under a Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi 4.0 Internasional.

View My Stats