Perbedaan Recognition Memory Kata Dan Gambar Pada Media Narasi Bergambar

Azizatul Adni, Diana Savitri Hidayati


Memori merupakan topik menarik untuk diteliti dan diperdalam, berbagai penelitian terkait memori dilakukan hingga saat ini. Salah satu ranah dalam memori tersebut adalah recognition memory. Banyak hal yang dapat dilakukan oleh memori dan juga banyak yang dapat terjadi salah satunya adalah false memory syndrome yang dapat terjadi karena adanya kesalahan dalam encoding memori. Dalam proses memori terdapat
proses encoding yang dapat dilakukan dengan dua cara yaitu asosiasi verbal dan gambaran visual. Berbagai penelitian dilakukan untuk membandingkan mengenai recognition memory pada kata dan gambar yang dihubungkan dengan encoding informasi
tersebut. Teori yang digunakan dalam recognition memory adalah threshold theory dan signal detection theory. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen dengan desain one-group post-test only design. Cerita yang digunakan
merupakan salah satu cerita dari serial Grimm’s Brother. Alat ukur yang digunakan
adalah alat ukur recognition memory dimana terdapat pasangan kata atau pasangan
gambar dari cerita tersebut. Hasil pengukuran kemudian dianalisa menggunakan Wilcoxon dimana hasil dari pengukuran kata dibandingkan dengan hasil pengukuran gambar. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan
pada recognition memory kata dan gambar dalam media narasi bergambar. Gambar merupakan stimulus yang lebih mudah dikenali oleh partisipan dibandingkan dengan kata. Hal tersebut dibuktikan dengan hasil perhitungan statistik yaitu nilai Z=-3.322 dan nilai p=0.001 (p<0.01).
Kata kunci : recognition memory, kata dan gambar, narasi bergambar


recognition memory, kata dan gambar, narasi bergambar

Full Text:



Ally, B.A., Budson. A.E. 2007. The Worth of Pictures: Using High Density Event-Related Potentials to Understand The memorial Power of Pictures and The Dynamics of Recognition Memory. Accesed on December 05 2013 from Neuroimage 35 (2007) 378-395.

Alloway, Tracy P. 2006. How does working memory work in the classroom?. Educational Research and Reviews Vol.1 (4), pp. 134-139, July 2006. Accessed online at http:// ISSN 1990-3839 ©2006 Academic Journals.

Baldwin, Jackie., Dudding, K. 2007. Storytelling in school: A Quantitative studies, innovative projects, and a reference guide. Accessed from

Bayley, P.J., Wixted, J.T., Hopkins, R.O., Squire, L.R. 2008. Yes/No Recognition, Forced –choice Recognition, and the Human Hippocampus. Accessed online at J Cogn Neurosci. 2008 March; 20(3):505-512. Accessed on December 05 2013.

Bellhouse-King, M.W., Standing, L.G. 2007. Recognition Memory for Concrete, Regular Abstract, And Diverse Abstract Pictures. Accessed on December 03 2013 from

Boltman, Angela., Druin, A. 2001. Children’s storytelling technologies: Difference in elaboration and recall. Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of a Doctor of Phylosophy at The University of Maryland at College Park.

Durso, Francis T., Johnson, M.K. (1979). Facilitation in naming and categorizing pictures and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory Vol.5, No.5.

Feldman, Robert. S. 2003. Essentials of understanding psychology. Boston: McGraw Hill.

Fliessbach, K., Weis, S., Klaver, P., Elger, C.E., Weber, B. 2006. The effect of word concreteness on recognition memory. NeuroImage 32 (2006) 1413-1421 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.007. Accessed on December 13, 2013 from

Gallets, Matthew P. 2005. Storytelling and story reading: A comparison of effect on children’s memory and story comprehension. Submitted in a Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Storytelling.

Irving, John. (1989). A prayer for Owen. Ebook Accessed on Sept 27 2013 from

Leedy, Paul.D., Ormrod, J.E. 2010. Practical Research: Planning and Design Ninth Edition. New Jearsey: Pearson

Malmberg K. J., Recognition Memory: A Review of the Critical Findings and an Integrated Theory for Relating Them. Cognitive Psychology (2008), doi:10.1016/j.cogpsych.2008.02.004.

Paivio, Allan. 2006. (2006, Sept-Oct). Dual coding theory. Draft chapter for the conference on “Pathways to Literacy Achievement for High Poverty Children,” The University of Michigan School of Education.

Phelps, Elizabeth A. 2004. Human

emotion and memory: interaction of d hippocampal complex. Current opinion on Neurobiology. Elsevier DOI 10.1016/j.conb.2004.03.015. Accesed on December 12, 20113 from

Pimenta, Sherline., Poovaiah, Ravi. 2010. On Defining Visual Narratives. Accessed on 14 January 2014 from

Sacks, Oliver. (2013, February 21st). Speak and Memory. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from

Santrock, John W. 2002. Life-Span Development Edisi Kelima. Jakarta: Erlangga

Schwartz, Bennet.L. 2011. Memory:Foundation and Applications. USA: Sage Publications. Accesed on 13 Mei 2013 from

Shephard, Roger N.(1967). Recognition Memory for Words, Sentences, and Pictures. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 6, 156-163.

Siegler, R. 1978. Children’s thinking: What develops?. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Accessed on 14 January 2014 from

Standing, Lionel. 1973. Learning 10.000 Pictures. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 25, 207-222.

Swantz, Beth. 2004. The Effect of Storytelling: Interest and Understanding in Fourth Grade Social Studies Classroom. Submitted in Partial Fulfillment for Master of Education in Collaborative Teaching and Learning, Graceland University.

Wixted, John T. 2007. Dual-Process theory and Signal-Detection theory of recognition memory. American Psychological Association: Psychological review 2007, Vol 114, No. 1, 152-176. Accessed on Sept 27, 2013 from

Yoneliness, A.P., Dobbins, I., Szymanski, M.D. 1996. Signal-Detection, Threshold, and Dual-Process Models of Recognition Memory: ROCs and Conscious Recollection. Consciousness and Cognition 5, 418-441.

Zeelenberg, Rene´. 2005. Encoding specificity manipulations do affect retrieval from memory. Acta Psychologica. Accessed on May 12, 2013 from



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Jl. H.R. Soebrantas Km. 15.5 No. 155 Gedung Fakultas Psikologi UIN Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau Kel. Tuahmadani Kec. Tampan Pekanbaru - Riau 28293. 

E-mail : / Website :



Lisensi Creative Commons

Jurnal Psikologi oleh Fakultas Psikologi disebarluaskan di bawah Lisensi Creative Commons Atribusi 4.0 Internasional.